Clean room is a controlled environment where the pollutants and other agents are not allowed to enter through controlling. Clean room is used for different scientific research, medicine production, aerospace engineering applications etc. The environment of clean room needs to maintain very low level of pollutants all the time as these pollutants can effects the results of research or degrade the quality of medicine prepared in the clean room. Some of the pollutants and factors that are looked to control in a clean room are humidity, dust, chemicals, microbes and many more.
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Well-known physicist from America, Willis Whitefield is credited to have come up with the modern clean rooms. The air getting into the room is filtered to ensure that no impurities from the outside environment can enter the room. Clean rooms are designed with big space so that almost every kind of experiment can be done in the room which may not be possible outside. Sometimes a clean room may be of thousands of square feet for constructional purposes. Some of the fields for which clean rooms are a must are biotechnology, study of life sciences, semiconductors, manufacturing, etc. In these cases, even a very little intrusion of alien material can affect the results or production. Only highly filtered air enters the clean rooms to reduce any pollutants entering the room and the internal waste produced in the clean room is also removed internally.
Clean room consists of air locks for the entry and exit of the people. A specially designed suit is required for the people working in the clean room. This helps in reducing the pollution caused by human contact with the outer environment. To maintain the cleanliness of the clean rooms, special types of equipment, mops and buckets are used. The furniture used in the clean room is also carefully chosen which produces minimum amount of dust.
Although, clean rooms are taken special care to keep it pollution free, the clean rooms are not sterile. As to be sterile it requires to be completely free from pollutants but clean rooms contain dust and microorganisms. The dust and microorganisms enter the clean room by different means. Clean rooms are also designed in such a way that they can control the humidity and equipment are allowed to use if they are unlikely to produce any particle.